Chloroquine 1 tablets.
- Chloroquine has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria. After the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum started to develop widespread resistance to it, new potential uses of this cheap and widely available drug have been investigated. Chloroquine has been extensively used in mass drug administrations, which may have contributed to the emergence and spread of resistance.
- In the treatment of amoebic liver abscess, chloroquine phosphate may be substituted or added in the event of failure of resolution of clinical symptoms with metronidazole or another nitroimidazole within 5 days or intolerance to metronidazole or a nitroimidazole.
- As it mildly suppresses the immune system, it is used in some autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus.
- Chloroquine is in clinical trials as an investigational antiretroviral in humans with HIV-1/AIDS and as a potential antiviral agent against chikungunya fever.
- The radiosensitizing and chemosensitizing properties of chloroquine are beginning to be exploited in anticancer strategies in humans.
- In biomedicinal science, chloroquine is used for in vitro experiments to inhibit the lysosomal degradation of protein products.
Against rheumatoid arthritis, it operates by inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, phospholipase A2, antigen presentation in dendritic cells, the release of enzymes from lysosomes, release of reactive oxygen species from macrophages, and production of IL-1.